Travel Guide for exploring Ladakh and Spiti

North India is home to perhaps some of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring landscapes known to man. It is something straight out of a traveller’s fairytale with high altitude barren deserts, snow capped mountain ranges, fluorescent blue lakes, ancient Buddhist monasteries, epic road trips, remote villages and friendly people. There’s nothing more you could possibly want for an adventure.

It was a place that had been calling me for some time, but with roads only open for a short few months in Summer each year, I had to wait for the perfect time to go and I was glad that I did. I spent nearly three months exploring Kashmir, Ladakh, Zanskar and Spiti and I based myself for around six weeks in Leh (capital of Ladakh region) alone. I’ll be forever dreaming of the mountain views there.

I’ve compiled a comprehensive travel guide here for exploring Ladakh and Spiti Valley, two regions of North India that are almost beyond imagination in their raw beauty. It will cover transport options for getting to these remote places, accommodation and restaurant recommendations, as well as all the top places to see in Ladakh and Spiti Valley.

What I’ll be covering in this post:

Kargil-Leh road
Kargil-Leh road

the Route I took

From Delhi, a lot of people head straight up to Manali and then onto Leh. However, the rapid change in altitude this way means a lot of people suffer from altitude sickness, as the Manali-Leh road reaches over 5000m on multiple occasions.

To acclimatise gradually I did a loop using public transport, first through Kashmir and then on to Ladakh before going to Spiti, which meant I faced no problems from the altitude at any stage of the trip.

If you have the time and plan on exploring Kashmir too, I recommend this long-winded loop I took from Delhi.

Delhi – Amritsar – Dharamsala – Jammu – Srinagar – side trip to Aru Valley – Leh – side trips to Nubra Valley, Markha Valley and Zanskar – Keylong – Manali – Kaza (Spiti Valley) – Rekong Peo/Kalpa – Shimla – Rishikhesh – Delhi

To read about my trip through Kashmir you can check out my posts from Srinagar and Aru Valley.

Exploring Ladakh

Ladakh was part of the former Tibetan Kingdom and is still home to a predominantly Buddhist population today. This means that the culture, language, food, vibe and architecture are all completely different to what you might find elsewhere in India. People are surprised to find out that I spent six weeks in Ladakh, however, there are plenty of things to do in Ladakh, especially if you enjoy hiking and nature.

Leh Bazaar
Leh Bazaar

Leh, ladakh

Leh is the capital of Ladakh region, sitting at an altitude of 3500m. I based myself there for six weeks while I explored the area and took some time out to relax. It’s far different from other places in India and you can walk the streets without the chaos and intensity of other towns. The main bazaar and tourist area has everything you might need, from souvenir shops, trekking gear, travel agencies, cafes, supermarkets, banks and a government-run tourist information office (which may just be the most helpful in all of India).

The best things to do in Leh, Ladakh include, climbing the stairs to the Shanti Stupa as well as the old palace and monastery on the hill above town. Both places offer a beautiful view at sunset and are worth the climb up, despite the altitude.

View from Leh Palace
View from Leh Palace

Where I stayed in leh

There are a lot of guesthouses tucked away in small alleys and big hotels dominating the main streets. It took a bit of effort and asking around, but I settled on a small family run guesthouse called Atisha, that my Israeli friends had actually found first. It became like a second home and I would highly recommend it.

The family speak little English but they are so lovely and offered me tea regularly in their lounge room. They have a small terrace to sit and the rooms are basic but comfortable and clean. The location is perhaps the best part, as its five minutes away from the main bazaar but tucked in a small alleyway with only foot traffic.

Atisha Guesthouse – in the alleyway underneath Chopsticks restaurant, near Bon Appetit cafe. I paid 400 rupees (AUD$8) for a private room with bathroom, on the ground floor (the upper floors were 500-800 rupees).

Stok Kangri at sunset

Where I ate in leh

I think I tried every cafe in Leh and spent days cafe hopping while I waited for transport and to catch up on photo editing and writing. My top picks for food in Leh are:

Bon Appetit Cafe and French Bakery – my go-to for breakfast as it was just 100m from where I was staying but the staff are super friendly and by the end of my time in Leh they knew my order before I’d even sat down. Large menu, offering Indian, South Indian, Israeli and Western food

Bodhi Greens – new in 2019, and linked to the cafe with the same name in Dharamsala, it’s an all vegan cafe and hugely popular with backpackers. Their main meals were a bit expensive and average on the whole, but their breakfast options and smoothies are amazing. It has an unbeatable view of the surrounding mountains and the best Wi-Fi I found in all of Leh

Brazil Cafe – a small cafe upstairs in the main bazaar, that offers just drinks and cake and some light meals, the staff are always smiling and happy and the view looking down on Old Leh is pretty nice

Chopsticks – the best restaurant I’d eaten at for a while and along with my Israeli friends, we ate there every night for a week. Everything was delicious and not too badly priced, highly recommend the Pad Thai. The waiters all knew us and our order by the end of our time in Leh as well! It’s very popular and everyone knows where it is

Coffee Cave – a really nice, small cafe in the main bazaar street. Comfortable seats and the best ginger, lemon and honey tea I’ve ever had. A popular place for people to take their laptops and sit for a while

Ladakhi Women’s Cafe – run as a sort-of not-for-profit by Thinlas Chorol, the woman who started the first all female trekking company in Ladakh. They have a set menu each day of the week, pasted outside and for 80 rupees per plate, it’s the best value I found, and you know that 50% of the money goes back to helping local women

How I got in

I came from Srinagar and was able to share the cost of hiring a whole jeep with a group of five other travellers. From Srinagar to Leh, there are buses every couple of days but it’s infrequent and tickets are sold out quickly. We paid 2600 rupees each (AUD$52), which included the trip from Aru Valley to Srinagar as well as one night break in Srinagar before leaving for Leh. We left Srinagar at 5am and arrived in Leh at 6pm. We stopped briefly for chai and lunch but not for very long.

There is a small airstrip in town called Leh Airport and there are frequent flights to Delhi during high season and technically in winter, this is the only way in and out for tourists. Prices can vary hugely and when any of the roads from Delhi to Ladakh are washed out or closed, expect prices to skyrocket.

Nubra Valley
Nubra Valley

Nubra Valley, Turtuk and Pangong Lake

The most popular excursion and side trip that most people take is north from Leh to Nubra Valley. It’s the most recently opened area of the region and was once an important valley through which the Silk Road passed. It stretches from the Karakoram Mountains in Pakistan to the west to the border of Tibet in the east.

The main town in Nubra Valley is Diskit, which has a beautiful monastery and plenty of hotels and restaurants servicing all the bikers and tours en route. On the outskirts of town, you’ll find a stretch of sand dunes, which offer a bizarre contrast to the snow-capped mountains surrounding them. Double humped camels roam around the dunes, and there are plenty of people offering camel trips, which is one of the most popular things to do in Nubra Valley. Or you can just spend time patting them, which is what we did!

Nubra Valley
Nubra Valley
Nubra Valley Camels

Further west is the village of Turtuk, the northernmost, accessible village in India. Technically a part of Baltistan, which is mostly now part of Pakistan, the village is home to ethnic Balti people. It’s a picturesque village on the banks of the Shyok River and if you climb up to the small temple on the side of the slope above, you can even get a glimpse of the peak of K2 across the border. It’s not always included on a tour but it’s certainly one of the most beautiful and unique places to see in Nubra Valley and is worth the long drive.

Pangong Lake, is one of the highest saltwater lakes in the world and sits at 4250m. It’s perhaps one of Ladakh’s biggest drawcards as its fluorescent blue colour amongst the arid slopes of the mountains is a truly spectacular sight. It’s considered sacred for Buddhists and almost 2/3 of it actually lies across the border in Tibet.

Turtuk village
Turtuk village

The road from Nubra Valley to Pangong Lake is actually in really good condition and well paved. It’s a heavily militarised area and much of the infrastructure is maintained by the army. However, it does require crossing multiple high passes, so it’s best to only make the trip if you’ve well acclimatised in Leh. The most famous is Khardung La pass, once considered to be the highest road pass in the world, at 5360m, which connects Leh and Diskit in Nubra Valley. It’s considered mandatory to get out and take a photo at the sign at the top, although be prepared for a lot of crowds and traffic. It can be a little treacherous after heavy snow, and it’s often closed due to bad weather conditions.

Pangong Lake

Most people take a jeep tour, which is what I did, with a group of other travellers. The typical Nubra Valley sightseeing tour is three nights, four days, with the first night spent in Turtuk, the second in Diskit and the third on the shores of Pangong.

A permit is required to complete the tour as Nubra and Pangong are technically part of the sensitive border regions. Our agency, who organised the jeep, took care of this for us. The permit cost 600 rupees (AUD$12).

The jeep cost around 4000 rupees (AUD$80) each person for the entire four days, for six people. The government has set prices for these kinds of Ladakh tours, and the agencies all work off an official price list. We walked around to a few agencies but they all quoted us the same price. It just depends on which agency has a group going on which day to suit your own timing. We went with Great Himalaya Adventure on Changspa Road, which is a very popular agency for backpackers.

Where I stayed

Accommodation during the tour was up to us. We informed the driver that we needed ‘cheap’ and so he was patient as we often made him drive to multiple places before we settled on one.

Turtuk village: We stayed at Khan Homestay and shared three rooms between the six of us for 500 rupees (AUD$10) per person, including dinner and breakfast. He even had Wi-Fi, which actually worked pretty well believe it or not.

Diskit: We stayed at Ama Guesthouse, a new place opened by an extremely friendly family, who were so thrilled when we found their place tucked down a side road. He offered us one large room that slept six people for 350 rupees (AUD$7) per person, including meals.

Pangong Lake: Most people stay at a place called Spangmik, where there are plenty of accommodation choices. However, we asked our driver to continue to the last village, called Man, which only had a small number of places. It’s mostly glamping-style tents and at first places were quoting us 2000 rupees until we found a family who had four basic tents and we paid 600 rupees (AUD$12) per person including meals.

Nubra Valley road

Markha Valley

There are numerous treks in Ladakh, however, the most popular one for independent hikers is Markha Valley trek. It’s easily accessible from Leh and can be organised completely on your own because there’s a good network of homestays, the trail is very clear and local taxis can drop and pick up from the trailheads.

I wrote a whole post on my time trekking in the Markha Valley and you can read about it here.

Zanskar

Zanskar Valley is seldom visited by tourists who travel to Ladakh. It’s remote, has only basic services and infrastructure and is a challenging place to get to. Most people who do reach there are usually on some sort of package tour or with an organised driver and guide, however, it is possible (with some patience) to do it alone/independently.

I wrote a post about my time there, including the long two day journey to reach Padum by bus from Leh, exploring the ancient monasteries and trekking to Phuktal. You can read it here.

Thiksey Monastery
Thiksey Monastery

Monasteries

To explore the monasteries around Leh, the easiest way is to hire a taxi for the day and you can cover most of the main ones close to Leh like Shey, Thiksey, Stok, Stakna and Hemis. However, it’s also possible to see some of the monasteries using public transport and that’s what we did.

We decided to take the local buses that shuttle up and down the road from Leh to Choglamsar instead. They leave frequently from the main gate in Leh, five minutes from the main bazaar. From Choglamsar, there are buses going on to Shey and Thiksey or you can also take a taxi from there to Stok, or walk if you have plenty of time.

To get back, you have to flag the buses down on the main road or hitch a ride with someone driving past, which is what we did.

Thiksey and Hemis are perhaps the most impressive monasteries and in my opinion, are must sees on any Leh, Ladakh trip.

I also wrote an article on 7 Monasteries to Check Out in Ladakh for Matador Network, if you want to know more.

Leh JKSRTC bus timetable
Leh JKSRTC bus timetable as of 2019

How I got out

After exploring Ladakh and Zanskar, I continued down to Manali. The Jammu and Kashmir State Road and Transport Corporation (or JKSRTC for short!) station in Leh, just 10-15 minutes from the main bazaar by foot has buses to most destinations in Ladakh but sometimes only weekly. Each year the days tend to change from what I understand, but the 2019 timetable is as above.

Keylong-Manali road
Keylong-Manali road

From Ladakh to manali

The epic road from Leh to Manali is well known by many intrepid travellers and motorbike enthusiasts. It’s a famous mountain road that winds its way across the Greater Himalayas for 480km and includes multiple high altitude passes. The landscape and climate means that the road is only open for around four months each year and it’s a huge operation each season to clear the snow and continuously attend to landslides that occur frequently.

The average height of the traverse is 4000m and there are three passes over 5000m, with the highest being Tanglang La at 5320m. Despite all the challenges, government-run buses ply up and down the highway during the season and the journey takes two days with a night’s stop in Keylong. If you’re wondering how to get from Leh to Manali, then this is how I did it.

When I went to the bus station in Leh I had to purchase a ticket to Keylong first, as they had stopped selling thru tickets to Manali. I went the day before to purchase my ticket but otherwise it’s possible to get on the day as well. The bus to Keylong left at 3.30am and cost 550 rupees (AUD$11). It took 14 hours with a few breaks for chai, breakfast and lunch. It truly was a spectacular road and the high passes were completed in the morning, closer to Leh. After that, the road passed through rocky valleys and over rivers, which often meant passing trucks, military vehicles and other buses on a skinny, bumpy road.

Keylong-Manali road
Keylong-Manali road

In Keylong, I stayed at Khandroling Guesthouse right in the bus station. After asking a few places, it was by far the cheapest and they charged 400 rupees (AUD$8) for single occupancy or 500 rupees (AUD$10) for two people. It was basic and average but for just one night’s sleep it did the job. They have Wi-Fi and a decent restaurant too.

The next morning I was at the bus station at 4.00am, for the bus onwards to Manali which departed at 4.30am. However, it was already full of people by the time I got there. I was told that there were other buses from Keylong to Manali later in the morning at 7am and 9am, so I went back to sleep and then returned again at 9am.

From Keylong to Manali the trip took 6 hours and cost 200 rupees (AUD$4).

In Manali, I stayed at Moustache Hostel, one of the Indian chain hostels. It was one of the cheapest in town and exceptional value. I only stayed two nights, but it was very clean and comfortable, with all the amenities a good hostel should have.

If you’re coming from Manali and want to take the Rohtang pass towards Leh or Spiti, then you will need a permit. A great blog post where you can read about the permit and how to get one is here.

HRTC bus

Spiti Valley

From Manali, I wanted to go to Spiti Valley. This incredible high altitude valley separates India and Tibet and is similar to Ladakh in that it is characterised by a dry, desert environment surrounded by rugged snow-capped mountains. it’s emerged as a popular destination for motorbike enthusiasts who cruise along the bumpy roads on Royal Enfields. However, as usual in India, it’s also possible to reach Spiti Valley by public transport. If you’re wondering how to get from Manali to Spiti Valley by bus this is how I did it.

From Manali, there’s a daily bus to Kaza in Spiti Valley, that actually originates in Kullu and comes through Manali just before 6am. I was at the station at 5.30am, just to be sure, however, you can’t purchase tickets in advance and have to wait until it arrives. Because of this, getting a seat is not guaranteed, however, I was lucky enough to get a window seat at the front which was somehow still vacant. It cost 250 rupees (AUD$5) and the journey took 13 tortuous hours.

The road is, as all roads seem to be in this part of the world, incredibly beautiful. However, it was extraordinarily bumpy and a hell of a trip. The road is in terrible condition, even bikers struggle with it, but still it’s the only option.

Spiti Valley
Spiti Valley

Kaza

Kaza is a small town and the main hub of Spiti Valley. It sits exceptionally high at 3800m and the snow capped mountains of the valley stretch in both directions. There isn’t a lot of action going on in the town but you can get most things in the small market.

There is no phone reception in town other than BSNL network and although a couple of places advertise Wi-Fi, it rarely works and is hardly strong enough to do very much other than send a message.

There are plenty of sights and things to do in Spiti Valley to keep you entertained for days. Although, you could also just spend time staring at the incredible scenery if you wanted. Spiti Valley claims a lot of world records and you’ll likely see ‘the highest this’ and ‘the highest that’ sign posted everywhere. Kaza is home to the highest retail petrol pump in the world. Nearby Komik, is the world’s highest village accessible by a motorable road, at 4500m. A short drive from there is Hikkim, where you’ll find the world’s highest post office. It’s considered essential for any Spiti Valley trip to send a postcard from there with the help of the friendly office attendant.

Hikkim Post Office
World’s Highest Post Office – Hikkim

In one long day trip by taxi or hired motorbike or scooter, it’s possible to explore the surrounding villages on the mountain above Kaza. A suggested Spiti Valley trip itinerary for a day could include the villages of Komik, Hikkim, Langza, Key and Kibber.

Komik, Hikkim and Langza are not too far apart from each other and the roads are pretty easy to navigate. Then you can continue back towards Manali for just 12km on the same side of the valley as Kaza and you can explore Key and Kibber. Key is home to the picturesque Key Monastery which is the ‘postcard shot’ you see of Spiti Valley. It’s buildings are layered down a small hill and the friendly monks will happily let you inside the main prayer rooms. Just further up the road, Kibber has a few homestays and good restaurants to break up the day.

If you have another day up your sleeve, you can spend time in Pin Valley over the mountains in front of Kaza. The main town of Mud, has homestay options available.

Key Monastery
Key Monastery

Where I stayed in kaza

There are a few Spiti Valley hotels in Kaza, although most are slightly more expensive than what you’d get for the same place elsewhere in India. I stayed at Moustache Hostel Kaza and paid 500 rupees (AUD$10) for a dorm bed, the cheapest option in town that I could find. It’s relatively new and is about 1km from Kaza town, in the same building as the official Royal Enfield workshop.

Where I ate in kaza

The hostel offered breakfast and dinner, however, for lunch it was best to visit one of the cafes in Kaza. There are a few good restaurants there, boasting vegan options, Israeli food and even gluten free buckwheat pancakes at one place.

The most well known cafe is The Himalayan Cafe, which is where you’ll find most backpackers and bikers hanging out. The menu is pretty good with creative non-Indian meals as well as a large drinks menu, bit on the pricey side though.

Cafe Zomsa, near the main market, is good for vegan and gluten free options.

From Spiti to Shimla

From Kaza, you can either return to Manali the same way or take the road that skirts the Tibet border and requires a permit to get to Rekong Peo. It’s a stunning road and is more convenient if you want to get to Shimla or explore the Kinnaur Valley.

The bus leaves Kaza every day at 7.30am, but get to the station at 7am to buy the ticket as there is no reservations the day before. The bus took 9 hours to get to Rekong Peo, with three checkpoints along the way for passport and permit. It cost 300 rupees (AUD$6).

How to get the Rekong Peo road permit

To avoid going back to Manali, I wanted to take the road around to Rekong Peo via the Tibet border. It passes the more remote villages of Tabo and Nako, which both have homestays for people who want to explore Spiti even more. Entering into this part of Himachal Pradesh requires a permit for foreigners and I got mine in Kaza.

It was a typical Indian bureaucratic affair. The permits are issued at the Deputy Commissioner Office which is in a building near the Kaza Hospital and Police Station. The signs are only in Hindi but once you enter the building there is a room on the right which is for permits. When I arrived the office was empty and no one appeared to be working at all. After asking a few people and being told to wait while they call someone, nearly an hour went by. A few other people arrived also looking for permits and together we were able to track down the man responsible for giving them. He then asked if we had the forms to fill out, which apparently we had to buy ourselves from a small photocopy shop across the road. We also needed copies of our passport and visa and a couple of passport photos.

By the time I had all the necessary documents, the officer told us he was going for his lunch break! However, he kindly processed my permit first as I’d been waiting the longest. It cost 200 rupees (AUD$4).

Kalpa

Once in Rekong Peo, I took another shuttle bus up to Kalpa for 30 minutes which leave just outside the bus station. Kalpa is a much nicer, smaller village to stay in than Rekong, and offers beautiful views of the snow capped mountains around.

In Kalpa, I stayed at Blue Lotus Hotel, recommended in Lonely Planet and it really is the best budget option in the village. The view from the balcony is exceptional and it has a tasty restaurant on site too. I paid 600 rupees (AUD$12) for a nice room with a bathroom. Prices are negotiable.

Kalpa, Kinnaur Valley

From Kalpa/Rekong Peo, I took a bus to Shimla, which leave frequently from the station and takes around 10 hours. It cost 450 rupees (AUD$9). In Shimla, I stayed at the only hostel in the city, called Thira Shimla, it’s an old building but the inside is nice and cozy and it’s walking distance to the central mall.

Shimla, capital of Himachal Pradesh, is well connected to other cities in India. Buses leave frequently for Delhi, but I took a bus to Dehradun where I got a connecting bus to Rishikesh in the same day.

FAQS about Ladakh and Spiti Valley

Is Ladakh safe for tourists?

Ladakh is one of the safest areas of India to be as a tourist. Despite it being in a relatively precarious region with Kashmir, Pakistan, China and Tibet in its surrounds, Leh remains a very peaceful and safe place to explore. The only dangers that you would encounter are treacherous roads and weather conditions as well as altitude sickness.

Which is the best month to visit Ladakh?

June and August are the main months that tourists visit Ladakh. These are the best months for road safety, as the weather is at its warmest and the snow has well and truly cleared. However, it’s also the busiest time and, although not crowded, prices tend to go up. Still, if you want to join any tours or treks then this is the perfect time to meet other travellers. Otherwise, you can also go to Ladakh between April and June, before most of the tourists arrive, although road conditions can’t always be guaranteed.

Is Spiti Valley dangerous?

Despite the need for some permits, especially for road travel through Rekong Peo, Spiti Valley is very safe for tourists. Its remote location means that it remains very peaceful and seems a world away from the rest of the region. It is close to Tibet and there is a heavy military presence at some locations, however, this has never impacted tourists’ safety. Like Ladakh, altitude sickness and road conditions would be the main dangers.

Which is the best month to visit Spiti Valley?

Visiting Spiti Valley has a smaller weather window than Ladakh, mostly because it’s only accessible by road. From June until September is the best time to visit Spiti Valley, as the roads should remain open for the entirety of this time meaning you can complete the circuit from Manali to Kaza and back to Shimla via Rekong Peo or vice versa.

How do you travel to Ladakh and Spiti Valley?

The best way to travel to Ladakh and Spiti Valley is by road. This way you can fully appreciate the journey, the scenery, the landscape and the location. Road is the only way to travel to Spiti so you’ll have the options of public bus, motorbike or private car. Leh has an airport and has flights all year round and in winter, this is the only way to get in. Otherwise, you can reach Leh by road from Manali or Srinagar by public bus, private car or motorbike.

Which is better Leh or Spiti?

You can’t simply declare Leh or Spiti as the better option. They have many similarities, such as high altitude, arid and mountainous landscape, Buddhist culture and remote location. However, they also have many differences. Leh is more touristy, a larger town, more accessible and has regular phone and internet network. Spiti is more remote, much smaller and without a lot of phone network or steady electricity. It’s really up to you to decide where you go and what you like about both places.

Ladakh and Zanskar

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